Source: Tidens Leksikon
Harald Hårfagre ca.890-ca.940
Eirik Blodøks ca.940-ca.950
Håkon (I) den gode ca.950-ca.960
Harald Gråfell ca.960-ca.970
(Håkon jarl) ca.970-ca.995
Olav (I) Tryggvason 995-1000
(Eirik jarl og Svein jarl) 1000-1016
Olav (II) den hellige 1015-1030
Svein Knutsson 1030-1035
Magnus den gode 1035-1047
Harald Hardåde 1046-1066
Magnus Haraldsson 1066-1069
Olav (III) Kyrre 1069-1093
Håkon Magnusson 1093-1094
Magnus Berrføtt 1093-1103
Olav Magnusson 1103-1115
Øystein Magnusson 1103-1123
Sigur Jorsalfar 1103-1130
Magnus Blinde 1130-1135
Harald Gille 1130-1136
Sigurd Munn 1136-1155
Inge Krokrygg 1136-1161
Øystein Haraldson 1142-1157
Håkon (II) Herdebrei 1157-1162
Magnus Erlingsson 1161-1184
Sverre Sigurdsson 1177-1202
Håkon (III) Sverreson 1202-1204
Inge Bårdsson 1204-1217
Håkon (IV) Magnusson 1217-1263
Magnus Lagabøte 1263-1280
Eirik Magnusson 1280-1299
Håkon (V) Magnusson 1299-1319
Magnus Eiriksson 1319-1374
Håkon (VI) Magnusson 1355-1380
Olav (IV) Håkonsson 1381-1687
Erik av Pommeren 1389-1442
Kristoffer av Bayern 1442.1448
Karl I Knutsson 1449-1450
Christian I 1450-1481
Christian II 1513-1523
Frederik I 1524-1533
Christian III 1536-1559
Frederik II 1559-1588
Christian IV 1588-1648
Frederik III 1648-1670
Christian V 1670-1699
Frederik IV 1699-1730
Christian VI 1730-1746
Frederik V 1746-1766
Christian VII 1766-1808
Frederik VI 1808-1814
Christian Frederik 1814
Karl II ( XIV) 1814-1818
Karl III (XIV) Johan 1818-1844
Oscar I 1844-1859
Karl IV (XV) 1859-1872
Oscar II 1872-1905
Haakon VII 1905-1957
Olav V 1957-1994
Harald V 1994-
(died about 940) He was the first king to reign the whole country. His father was Harald Svarte, and his mother, is in accordance to Snorre Sturlason, called Ragnhild. Snorres stories about Harald Hårfagre was written several centuries after Haralds death, so they are hardly reliable. But there are skaldic lays, primarily the "Haraldskvadet", which was written in honor of Harald, while he was alive. The lays says that Harald was a powerful Viking-king, he was rich and had a lot of gold and many ships, and he was surrounded by a faithful guard. The "Haralds lay" is an eyewitness-describtion of the battle of "Hafrsfjord" - a battle Harald won, but the lay does not say anything about the causes and effects of the battle. In the lay, Harald is called "the king of the Norwegians", which signifies that he was in control of the whole country when the lay was made. Harald did not cut his hair until he had gathered Norway into one kingdom (and it's because of his hair he has been called Harald the hairy one), and it is told that his hair finally was cut by the earl of Møre, at a place called Bremsnes.
lay made of Torbjørn Hornklove to Harald Hårfagre.
a 17 metres high stone monument raised in 1872 at Haraldshaugen, Gard in Rogaland memorizing the victory of Harald Hårfagre at the battle of Hafrsfjord. 29 smaller stone monuments are forming a square, one stone for each county he was supposed to have gained control over.
grave-mound at Gard in Skåre, Rogaland. In accordance to a legend, Harald Hårfagre is laid to rest in this grave-mound. But the grave-mound is probably older than this, and the legend is therefore probably not right.
(dead about 954) Inherited the kingdom after his father, Harald Hårfagre. The nick-name Blodøks (translated: blood-axe) was given to him as he was supposed to have killed several of his brothers. Erik left Norway when his younger brother Håkon den gode, returned form England. Erik was later king in Northumberland in England, and died there in 954.
anonymous lay from 954. Memorizing lay of Eirik Blodøks.
Son of Harald Hårfagre and Tora Mosterstrand, and was raised by king Ethelstan of England, thereof the common used name; Adalsteinsfostre. (Håkon was also nick-named "the good one") Håkon made an unsuccessful attempt to Christianize Norway. It looks as many important changes of the "lagting" and "leidang" took place when Håkon was king. Håkon was killed by the sons of Eirik Blodøks, at the battle of Fitjar at Stord.
lay made of Eyvind Skaldespiller, about the death of Håkon den gode at the battle of Fitjar.
(dead about 970) Son of Eirik Blodøks and was king after the death of his fathers brother; Håkon den gode.
(968-1000) Son of Harald Hårfagres grandson, king Tryggve in Viken. Olav participated in several battles in his youth. Together with Svein Tjugeskjegg he attacked England in 994. Olav became Christianized when he was at king Etheltan of England. When Olav reached Trøndelag in 995 he was already known as one of the greatest leaders in Northern Europe and at the "Øreting", the people in Trøndelag made him king. Olav was also made king of Viken, at the western part of Norway, "Vestlandet" and in Hålogaland. And also the Orkney Islands, Hjaltland and the Faroe Islands looked upon him as the "main king". Olavs most important act as king, was to Christianize huge parts of his kingdom, though sometimes he had to use violence. Olav is the founder of Nidaros and he is supposed to have raised a church at Moster. Olav died in the battle of Moster, a battle against his enemies; Svein Tjugeskjegg, Olav Skottkonung and Eirik Jarl. (jarl=earl in English)
Eldest son of Håkon Ladejarl( the earl of Lade). Entered into a league with the kings of Denmark and Sweden, against Olav Tryggvason, and participated in the battle of Svolder in year 1000, where Olav died. After this, Eirik and his brother Svein reigned over huge parts of Norway, with supervision of Denmark and Sweden. In 1014, Eirik followed king Knut den mektige ("the powerful") to England, and later he was given Northumberland as his county.
Olav Haraldsson, Olav den hellige (St.Olav) or Olav Digre ("big one") (968-1030), king of Norway from 1015, son of Åsta Gudbrandsdotter and Harald Grenske. According to the legend, Olav is supposed to have been baptized in Rouen. In 1015 he returned to Norway after extensive expeditions as Viking. The kings of Opplandene approved Olav as king of Norway, and after the battle of Nesjar (1016) where he beat Svein jarl, Einar Tambarskjelve and Erling Skjalgsson, he was also approved as king at the Øreting. Olavs rough proceeding in Norway, gave him many enemies, and many important Norwegian men joined king Knut den mektige in England. When Knut came to Norway in 1028, Olav ran of to Gardarike. When Knuts vassal in Norway, Håkon jarl disappeared in the ocean, he decided to try to win his kingdom back. The important men Kalv Arneson, Tore Hund and Hårek from Tjøtta leaded the army Olav met at Stiklestad. The king died in this battle (28th of July 1030). Later, the same men want against Svein and Alfiva, the people king Knut had decided should reign the country, and the passed king Olav was declared as saint (though he has never been canonized by the pope). Olavs coffin was taken out of the grave, and placed in a church called Klementskirken, in Nidaros. Several stories about the kings wonders started to flow, and the pilgrims started coming to Nidaros.
This is the original coffin king Olav den hellige was laid in and this coffin was later placed at the alter of Klementskirken. Later, Olavsskrinet was the name of the elaborate and silver-covered chest which the wooden coffin was placed into. During the reformation, the silver was stolen.
This name comes of the old Norwegian word Olafsvaka. Olsok is the night before the 29th of July, an ecclesiastical feast day in the memory of the death of St.Olav, the 29th of July. In the catholic epoch, crowds of pilgrims streamed into Nidaros to celebrate Olav.
(dead about 1035) Also called Svein Alfivason. Son of Knut den mektige ("the powerful") and his mistress, Alfiva. After the death of St.Olav, Svein was king under his father, and his mother was his guardian. According to the story, Svein and Alfiva made the people pay huge taxes, and the made unreasonable laws. When Magnus Olavsson was brought back from Gardariket, Svein fled without fighting.
(1024-1047) King of Norway from 1035, king of Denmark from 1042, son of Olav Haraldsson. Magnus was brought back from Russia to Norway and was hailed as king by important men that had been dissatisfied by the control of Svein Knutssons. Magnus were rough with the enemies of his father, but it is told that he changed into a smoother policy, influenced by the lay called "Bersoglis-viser", made of Sigvat Skald. In 1042 he was hailed as king of Denmark, where he in 1043 repelled an attack of the Slavonic, at Lyrskog hede. In 1046 his fathers brother was also made king of Norway, and him and Magnus reigned together.
Son of Sigurd Syr and Åsta, who also was the mother of Olav Haraldsson. 15 years old, he fought in the battle of Stiklestad, together with Olav. After the loss, he went to Konstantinopel, where he served in the imperial guard. Harald got married with Ellisiv, daughter of the Russian grand duke Jaroslav. In 1046 Harald and Magnus den gode shared Norway between themDenmark. After the death of Magnus, Harald also claimed Denmark, but after several rough battles, he had to give up the dominion to Svein Streidssøn . Harald fought with several powerful men, among others; Einar Tambarskjelve, who he had killed, and the archbishop of Bremen. Harald also claimed England, but he died in 1066, in the battle of Stanford Bridge, against Harald Godwinsson.
(lived about 1050-1093) Kyrre means the peaceful. Son of Harald Hardråde. Olav mad peace with Vilhelm the Conqueror and with the Danish king Svein Estridssøn, who claimed Norway. Olav married Ingrid, Sveins daughter. Olavs reign was the longest period with peace since Harald Hårfagre, and the stories about him are therefore not particular colorful. During his reign, the permanent episcopal residences was founded, and the laws of the country was put in writing. Olav is the founder of Bergen.
(1073-1103) Son of Olav Kyrre. He forced the earls of the Orkney Islands and the king of the Hebrids to be subordinated to the Norwegian kingdom. After battles in Denmark and Sweden, Magnus, the Danish king Erik Eiegod and the Swedish king Inge Stenkilsson made peace ( the settlement took place in Konghelle). Magnus died in Ireland.
(1099-1115) Son of Magnus Berrføtt. Olav was approved king together with his brothers Øystein and Sigurd Jorsalfar, but since he wasn't king over the whole country, he does not belong within the official row of kings.
(lived about 1088-1023) King of Norway together with his brothers; Sigurd and Olav. Son of Magnus Berrføtt. Øystein stayed mostly in Trøndelag, where he had most power. While Sigurd went on a crusade to "The Holy Country", Øystein strained for peaceful progress back home. He built a mountain inn at Dovre, built a harbor at Agdenes, raised several churches and founded Munkeliv monastery in Bergen. Øystein was also supposed to have taken the initiative to write down the laws. The relations between Sigurd and Øystein was not good, but there were no break between them.
Jorsalfar means one who as been to Jerusalem. King together with is brothers; Øystein and Olav, single king from 1123. Son of Magnus Berrføtt. In 1107 left Norway, leading a float of crusaders. He fought against the Moors in Spain, took part in the conquering of Sideon (1110) and visited the emperor of Konstantinopel. During Sigurds reign, the church was being favored; the episcopal residence of Stavanger was refounded, and the tithe was introduced.
(1115-1039) Son of Sigurd Jorsalfar. Magnus had to share the kingdom with Harald Gille. A war started between Magnus and Harald, and Magnus was castrated, blinded and put in a monastery at Munkholmen. Harald was murdered by Sigurd Slembe, who released Magnus from the monastery, and they ended up in a fight with the sons of Harald. Both Sigurd and Magnus died in the battle of Holmengrå.
Came from Ireland when Sigurd Jorsalfar was reigning, and he was approved as Sigurds brother, but he had to promise not to claim the kingdom during the lifetime of Sigurd and his son Magnus. After the death of Sigurd in 1130, Harald still made him self approved as king, supported by a strong group of men. Then a long period with civil wars started. Harald let Magnus be mutilated and blinded, while he himself was killed by Sigurd Slembe.
(1133-1155.) Son of Harald Gille. Sigurd was king together with his brothers Øystein and Inge. Most of his supporters lived in Trøndelag. When Sigurd and Øystein went against Inge, Sigurd was killed in Bergen. Sigurd left behind many illegitimate children. If king Sverre was one of his sons too, is a very disputed theme.
(1134-1161) Son of Harald Gille. Inge was approved king 2 years old. He got his nick-name "Krokrygg" after wounds he got when he was 3 years old, as a result of the battle of Minne, against Magnus Blinde. Inge was king at the same time as his brothers Sigurd Munn and Øystein Haraldsson. A party of important men, lead by Gregorius Dagsson and Erling Skakke supported Inge, and he came into a fight with his brothers, who both died in this fight. Inge died in a battle on the frozen Oslofjord, against king Håkon Herdebrei.
(1125-1157) King of Norway together with his brothers; Inge and Sigurd; son of Harald Gille. Øystein had very little power, and was often fighting with his brothers. He was killed in Ranrike, by king Inges men.
(1147-1162) Håkon was illegitimacy son of Sigurd Munn, and he was approved as king when his father and his uncle were dead. In 1161 Håkons army felled king Inge in a battle near Oslo, but the year after Håkon died in a battled against Erling Skakke; the battle of Sekken in Romsdal.
(1156-1184) Son of Erling Skakke and Sigurd Jorsalfars daughter Kristina. Magnus became crowned in Bergen in 1996, and was the first king in Norden to be crowned. The crowning was done by archbishop Øystein, and Magnus made an ecclesiastical marked Act of settlement , and a privilege-letter to the church. Magnus died in 1184 in the battle of Fimreite, against Sverre and the Birchlegs.
(1150-1202) King of Norway, taught as priest, claimed he was son of Sigurd Munn. Sverre grew up in the Faroe Islands. When Sverre turned 24 years old, his mother, Gunhild, told him he was son of a king. Sverre came to Norway in 1176, and after the battle of Re in 1177, he became leader of the Birchlegs, and he attained hailing as king at the Øreting. In 1179 Sverre won his first important battle, the battle of Kalvskinnet, by Nidaros. Erling Skakke died, and Magnus Erlingsson fled. In the battle of Ilevollen in 1180, Magnus lost again, and Sverre won Trøndelag. At the battle of Fimreime in 1184, Magnus died, and Sverre became king alone. But at Østlandet (eastern part of Norway), parties of rebellions gathered; the most dangerous was the members of the Bishops' party, lead by the bishop of Oslo; Nikolas Arneson. The church became Sverres main enemy, among others because he refused to approve several of the fresh gained rights, and archbishop Eirik banished Sverre. In 1198, pope Innocens III interdicted the parts of Norway where people supported Sverre. This situation lead to the work of controversy called "A speech against the bishops", made in the late part of the 1190's, in which Sverre claimed the kings power superior of the church. Sverre died of illness in Bergen in 1202, before the fight against the church was ended, and before the members of the Bishops party was beaten. The results of Sverres reign in relation to the country's community and governmental development has been disputed. Later historians like to see him as an intermediary of an already existing public centralization, than a creative person.
The legend of king Sverre Sigurdsson, one of the most important written sources of Norwegian history in the late 1100's.
(1185-1217) Son of one of king Sverres sisters. Inge was half-brother with Skule Bårdsson; they had the same father. Inge was approved as king by the Birchlegs, who was supported at Vestlandet (western part of Norway) and Trøndelag (middle part of Norway) , while the members of the Bishops' party was supported at Østlandet (the eastern part of Norway).
(1204-1263) Håkon was illegitimate child of Inga from Varteig and Håkon Sverresson. In 1217, Håkon was approved king by the Birchlegs in competition with Skule Bårdsson. In 1223, the kingdom was given to Håkon. After Skules rebellion and death 1239-1240, the more then hundred years old civil wars was over, and the Norwegian kingdom stated the times of greatness. The aristocratic part of the kings men approved the kingdom, and a french culture of knights won its way. Håkon was crowned by cardinal Vilhelm of Sabina in 1247, and he made a new Act of settlement, which was approved in. During his last year alive, Greenland and Iceland became Norwegian. Håkon died during a war against the Scottish king, who wanted the Hebrides to become Scottish again.
A royal building raised for Håkon Håkonsson in the 1200's. Restored in 1880-1893, with decorations made by Gerhard Munthe. Heavy damaged by an explosion in 1944, and re-restored in the 1950's. Several Norwegian artists has decorated the building. In September 1961 Håkonshallen was inaugurated as it is today. Håkonshallen is the official festivity hall of Bergen.
(1238-1280) Son of Håkon Håkonsson. Magnus got his nick-name ("lov-bøteren"-one who is making laws) because of a comprehensive work, making laws. In the 1270's, a common law for Norway was given, together with by-laws for the King's bodyguard, and laws for the towns. Magnus got trouble with Archbishop Jon Raude, who worked for the church's interest. An agreement between them was settled in 1277; called "Sætargjerden" in Tønsberg.
(1268-1299) Son of Magnus Lagabøte and the Danish princess Ingeborg. While he was under age, his guardians had all the power. Later, Eirik let himself be lead by persons and groups near him; among others his mother Ingeborg and several important men.
(1270-1319) Son of Magnus Lagabøte, duke of among others Østlandet in the period 1280-1299, and inherited the kingdom when his elder brother, Eirik Magnusson, died in 1299. During Håkons reign, the old Norwegian kingdom was fully developed. Håkon let the castles Akershus and Båhus be raised. With permission from the pope, Håkon founded a royal chapel-clergy, in which the dean of the church of Maria in Oslo became the kings chancellor. About 50 letters written of Håkon is preserved, whereby the ordinances of 1302 and 1308, in which the national government was reformed into a stronger royal control over the aristocracy. Håkons daughter Ingebjørg was married to the Swedish duke Erik Magnusson. Their son, Magnus Eriksson, inherited the kingdom after Håkon. Håkon was the last male member of the Norwegian royal lineage.
(1316-1374) Also king of Sweden in the period 1319-1363. Son of the Swedish duke Erik Magnusson and Håkon V's daughter Ingebjørg. In 1319 he was hailed as crown-prince in Norway, was elceted as king in Sweden, and was therefor the fist king of the Norwegian-Swedish union. During his childhood, the kingdoms was reigned by two separate guardian-governemts, in Norway this period lasted from 1323 till 1332, lead by Erling Vidkunsson. Magnus got into troubles with important Norwegian men, and in 1343 he abdicated for the benefit of his son, Håkon VI Magnusson, but Magnus was his guardian until 1355. In Sweden, Magnus maid his oldest son, Erik, be elected as new king, and with this, the Norwegian-Swedish union became dissoluted. Magnus was kept prisoner in the period 1365-1371 during fights in Sweden. After this, he lived in Norway.
(1340-1380) Son of Magnus Eriksson. In 1343, Magnus obtained a kingdom to each of his two sons. The oldest son, Erik Magnusson, was going to be king of Sweden. The younger Håkon was made king of Norway, when he became full-fully of age in 1355- until then, Magnus stayed king of Norway. When Erik died in 1359, Håkon became hailed as king in Sweden too. But in 1364 there was a rebellion in Sweden, and Albrecht of Mecklenburg was approved as new king of Sweden. Håkon spent the rest of his life, fighting to get Sweden back. Håkon was married to Margrete, daughter of Valdemar Atterdag.
(1370-1387) From 1376 he was also king of Denmark. Son of Håkon VI Magnusson and Margrete Valdemarsdatter. Olav was selected as king in Denmark when Valdemar Atterdags died. He inherited Norway after his father. And by this, the Norwegian-Danish union was founded. But in reality; Margrete had all the power when Olav was king of Norway.
(1353-1412) Reign queen of Denmark from 1387, in Norway from 1380 and in Sweden from 1398. Daughter of Valdemar Atterdag, married to Håkon VI Magnusson. Margrete was called to Sweden at the same time as Albrecht of Mecklenburg was deported. She imported peace into Norden, centralized the administration, and carried through a reduction of the properties of the church and nobility. Margretes only child, Olav, died in 1397, and Margrete appointed her sisters grandson, Erik of Pommern, as heir apparent. When he was crowned in Kalmar, an union between the Nordic kingdoms was settled; the union of Kalmar ("Kalmarunionen").
The union of Kalmar:
Union between Denmark, Sweden and Norway in the period 1389-1521, though Sweden had several long intermissions. The union was founded by queen Margrete, regent of Denmark and Norway. She was elected queen of Sweden in 1389, when her troops had defeated Albrecht of Mecklenburg. The first king of the union, Erik of Pommern, became crowned as king for the three kingdoms in Kalmar, 1397, of which the name; The union of Kalmar. In Kalmar, an union document was made, but it was never ratified by the three countries, so the union never entered legal state. Margrete was the real reign of the kingdom until her death in 1412. The union of Kalmar was dissoluted in 1448, when Karl Knutsson was elected king of Sweden, re-established for a few years under Christian I, Hans and Christian II. Sweden broke out of the union for good in 1521, when Gustav Vasa was elected as Swedish chancellor.
(1382-1459) After the death of Margrete in 1412, Erik took over the rule of the Union of Kalmar and tried to continue her policies. Came into trouble with the Hansa and other important men, and became removed as king in Denmark end Sweden in 1439, and in 1442, he died in Norway.
(1418-1448) Son of Erik of Pommern's sister, elected king of Denmark in 1440, in Norway; 1442 and in Sweden; 1441. Under Kristoffers short reign, the government had big influence in Denmark and Norway. Kristoffer gave the Hansa privileges in Oslo and Tønsberg.
(1408-1470) Karl was chancellor of Sweden and elected king of Norway when Kristoffer of Bavaria died. In 1449 he became crowned in Trondheim, with participation of Aslak Bolt, but he did not manage to defend his crown. He was overthrown twice in Sweden.
(1426-1481) King of Denmark and Sweden, and in Norway form 1450. Christian was driven away from Sweden by Karl Knutsson. When Karl died, Christian came back, but was conquered by Sten Sture the elder, at Brunkeberg in 1471. Christian acquired Schleswig and Holstein by purchase in 1460. When Christian became king of Norway, an union treaty was settled, in which Denmark and Norway became equal, and the union should last for ever. When Christian married his daughter to Jakob III of Scotland in 1469, he pawned the Orkneys and Hjaltland as marriage portion and he relinquished the taxes of Man and the Hebrides. The pawn was never redeemed.
(1455-1513) King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, son of Christian I. Hans, who became king of Denmark in 1481 and in Norway in 1483, was counteracted in Sweden, by the national party lead by Sten Sture the elder, and wasn't approved as king before 1497, but he was driven away only 4 years later, in 1501. He sent his son Christian II to Norway as king-deputy , to create order. Hans fought the Hansa.
(1481-1559) King of Denmark and Norway 1513-1523, of Sweden 1520-1521, son of Hans. Stayed in Norway 1506-1511 with royal authority. During Christians short reign in Sweden, the union-party lead by Gustav Trolle came to power. The massacre of Stockholm was a revenge against the national independent party. Christians part in this is disputed, but in Sweden he was given the name "Kristian the Tyrant". His policy in Denmark and Norway was for a while democratic. He leaned upon the citizens, against the nobility and the clergy, and he worked against the Hansa. Hans' main adviser was Sigbrit Willums, mother of his mistress, Dyveke. Because of the reform-policy, the nobility stood up against Christian, and Christian fled to the Netherlands in 1523 after being dethroned by the Jutlandish nobility, who took Christians uncle, Frederik I as king. Christian tried an invasion November 1531, but couldn't take Akershus. Then he sat off to Denmark with safe conduct in 1532, but he was betrayed, and was held as prisoner until he died.
(1471-1533) King of Denmark and Norway from 1524, son of Christian I. Frederik was elected king when the nobility stood up against Christian II. In return, he gave almost all the power to the parliament. Frederik was elected king in 1524, and issued a coronation charter, which gave the parliament a lot of power. But in practise; the Danish' were favored in Norway. Frederik supported the reformation.
(1503-1559) King of Denmark from 1534, of Norway from 1536, son of Frederik I. Christian secured the throne through victory over Lübeck in the Duke-quarrel ("Grevefeiden"). He accomplished the reformation in Denmark and Norway. According to Christian's coronation charter of 1536, it is said that Norway shall no longer be or be called a kingdom, but will be subordinated to the Danish kingdom. The Norwegian parliament stopped existing, and the Danish parliament took overt its functions. As king, Christian never visited Norway.
(1534-1588) King of Denmark and Norway from 1559. Son of Christian III. By maintaining the old Danish claims over Sweden, Frederik challenged Erik XIV, which resulted in "the Nordic seven year long war". Frederik built Kronenborg to guard the seaward approach to Øresund. The parliament, lead by the skilful Peder Oxe, set the finances on its feet again, after the war.
(1577-1648) King of Denmark and Norway from 1588 (reigning from 1596), son av Frederik II. Christian tried to lower the power of the parliament. Enforced the war of Kalmar in 1611, Danish encroachment during the "30 years long war" ("Trettiårskrigen") on 1626 plus further a war against Sweden in 1643; non of the wars turned out well for Denmark-Norway. He founded among others the towns Kristiania (today;Oslo) after the fire in 1624, Kristiansand in 1641 and Kristiansund. Magnus Lagabøtes national law was translated into Danish in 1604 under the name "The Norwegian law of Christian IV". In 1607 a church-ordination was introduced. Christian tried, with good results, to claim Norwegian sovereignty over Finnmark, but Norway lost at all times, Jemtland and Herjedalen by the peace of Brömsebro in 1645. Christian was very popular within his two countries, except among the nobility, which was opponents of his war-policy.
Style in Danish architecture during Christian IV reign, inspired by Dutch renaissance-style. Rich decorations made by sandstone one red brick walls, plus roofs of copper, green spires and roofs.
(1609-1670) King of Denmark and Norway from 1648, son of Christian IV. Frederik had to sign a very stright coronation charter in 1648, and he was constant in opposite of the nobility. In 1657 he started a war against Sweden, which in 1660 ended with Denmark loosing Skåne, Halland, Blekinge and Norway loosing Båhuslen. With support of citizens and the clergy, Frederik enforced a dissolve of the coronation charter, and he was given the authority to work out a new constitution. (This happened at a meeting in Denmark, 1660) In January 1661 he introduced the right of inheritance, and also absolute monarchy of the to kingdoms. A collegium replaced the parliament, and the nobility lost its political power.
(1646-1699) King of Denmark and Norway from 1670, son of Frederik III. Under Christians reign, the absolute monarchy became consolidated (by Giffenfeld). In 1675, Christian attacked Sweden; the so-called war of Skåne, also called the Gyldenløve-feud, bet with no luck. Important for Norway, was Christian V's Norwegian law of 1687 and the sawmill-privileges of 1688, which strengthened the citizens. The Norwegian defense was strengthened, and fortres' were founded.
Christian V's Norwegian law:
Approved 1687, replaced Magnus Lagabøtes law, which had been Norway's official law for more then 400 years; since 1604 translated into Danish and given the name Christian IV's Norwegian law. Christian V's Norwegian law is based on Christian V's Danish law of 1683, except several decisions about special Norwegian relations in the society of peasants, and in the court organization.
(1671-1730) King of Denmark and Norway from 1699, son of Christian V. Under his reign, the #livegenskapet# in Denmark was abolished, among others. Frederik participated in the great Nordic war. To raise money after the war, he sold big parts of the Norwegian church-goods, and also big parts of the crown-goods were sold to private persons.
(1699-1746) King of Denmark and Norway from 1730, son of Frederik IV. Christian was very weak, and strongly pietistic. Christian did a lot for the common education, the confirmations were introduced in 1736, an degree about school for the common people came in 1739. A law about grain for 1735 was did no good for Norway. Another law favored on the other hand, purchasing of iron from the Norwegian iron companies. Christian introduced adscription in Denmark in 1733.
(1723-1766) King of Denmark and Norway from 1746. Under Frederiks reign, J.H.E.Bernstorff had decisive influence. In a settlement with Sweden, about the borders in 1751, Karasjok and Kautokeino became totally Norwegian. Frederiks had a weak character, and he decayed into drunkenness. The finances was out of order, and high taxes created embitterment in Norway. (See "Strilekrigen").
(1749-1808) King of Denmark and Norway from 1766, son of Frederik VI, married to Caroline Mathilde. Christian became insane about 1770. The political power was taken over by Struensee until 1772, then to Hoeg-Guldbert until 1784 and then to crown-prins Frederik (VI)
(1768-1839) King of Norway 1808-1814, king of Denmark 1808-1839, son of Christian VII. Together with among others A.P.Bernstorff, Frederik toppled Guldbers guardian-reign (guardian for the insane king Christian) in 1784. From then until 1808, Frederik lead the government as crown-prince. After 1784, a huge social reform was carried through. After Bernstorffs dead in 1797, Frederik took care of the foreign affairs himself. In 1807, Frederik wished to be neutral, but after the English bombardment of København, and the abduction of the fleet, he joined Napoleon and the obstruction of the mainland; an alliance which led to the loss of Norway in 1814.
(1786-1848) King of Norway in 1814, under the name Christian VIII: In 1813 Christian was sent to Norway as governor. Christian did not approve the peace in Kiel of 1814, which gave Norway to the Swedish king, and Christian was in the center of a Norwegian rising. First, he wanted to become king of Norway in effect of the right of inheritance. But under a meeting the 16th of February ("notabelmøte") , he decided to induct a national assembly which was going to make a Norwegian constitution, and elect him as king according to the common sovereignty. He elected the title regent, appointed a government, and the 17th of May, he was unanimously elected king by the government. During the summer, he understood that he wasn't able to defend his Norwegian kingdom against Sweden and the Great Power. Later, he made sure that Norway would obtain the best possible situation in the negotiations with Sweden. He refused to surrender the fortres by the border, and lead a discreet defense against Swedish military attacks and with the convention of Moss the 14th of August, he secured the interests of Norway as far as possible. The 10th of October he renounced the Norwegian crown, and he went to Denmark, where he in 1839 inherited the Danish kingdom. In Denmark, Christian claimed the absolute monarchy, and he questioned the Norwegian constitution, which he himself had participated in making.
(1748-1818) Known under the name Karl XIII, though in Norway he was number II. King of Sweden from 1809, of Norway from 04.11.1814, as Karl II, became guardian for Gustav IV Adolf. He was proclaimed king in 1809 after having approved the new form of reigning, but his health was not good, and his capability and desire to be king was small. After 1811, the successor of the Throne, Karl Johan, had most influence.
(1763-1844) King of Sweden and Norway from 1818. Karl was of french, citizen-family, and his name was Jean-Baptiste-Jules Bernadotte. He became general of a division 31 years old, and he joined Napoleon on several campaigns. In 1789, he got married with Désirée Clary, who had been engaged to. She was inheritor of 5 mill. francs. In 1806, Karl became duke of Pontecorvo, in 1807, governor of the Hanseatic towns. In 1810 he received a private, Swedish question if he wanted to be Swedish successor of the Throne, the motive was possible, to win Napoleons support, through Karl. At the diet of Örebro 21.08.1810, Karl was elected successor of the Swedish Throne. He brought with him a property of more than 6 mill. francs, but not the support of Napoleon. He took the name Karl Johan, and when king Karl XIII was old and sick, he became commander-in-chief for the military power, and de facto regent. This lead to rapprochement with Russia, surrender of Finland, and support of the Russian tsar in his fight against Napoleon. As payment, Karl was promised Norway (agreement of 1812). In 1813, Great Britain joined the agreement, on the assumption that Karl and Swedish troops participated in the battle against Napoleon. After the allied's victory in Leipzig October 1813, Karl Frederik VI of Denmark-Norway enforced the peace of Kiel and the relinquishing of Norway. After a short war about Norway the summer of 1814, Karl agreed at the convention of Moss, to approve the constitution made at Eidsvoll, on the assumption that Christian Frederik abdicated, and that the union was introduced. This happened the 04.11.1814. The constitution was revised, Karl XIII elected king, while Karl Johan was the real regent. -It must have been Karl's assumption to build a faster union between Sweden and Norway, and a stronger royal power. But when the Great Powers no longer needed the support of Karl, and as they did not wish to create a stronger Scandinavian state, they left Karl alone to accomplish his plans, which he did not manage. But Karl had charm, he was generous to senior public servants and the poor, he gave offices, promotions and loans, and he was liberal when it came to mercy. -His foreign policy was following a straight line, neutrality, but especially friendly towards Russia. During the 30's , he came in contrast with the liberals in Sweden, who attacked his policy towards Russia, and also his national policies. The relationship with the Norwegians, however, became better when Wedel became governor in 1836.
(1799-1859) King of Sweden and Norway from 1844, only son of Karl XIV Johan. Oscar sympathized for the human and liberal, among others within the prison administration. During his first years in reign, the Norwegian government was changed a bit. After the revolution in February, Oscar became more conservative. He is seen upon as a compatible diplomat, and the relation between Sweden and Norway was without any big conflicts during his time as king. Under the crisis of Schleswig-Holstein in 1848, he gave, in agreement with Russia and in support of the common opinion, diplomatic and military support to Denmark. During the war of Crimea, he left the Russia-friendly policies of Karl XIV Johans, and approached to the western powers. (See the November-treaty)
(1826-1872) King of Norway and Sweden from 1859, son of Oscar I. Karl became early influenced by the "scandinavism", and dreamt of unite Norden under one king; a king of the house of Bernadotte. Without having obtained permission from the parliament, he promised Frederik VII military support against Germany in 1863. Wen the war started, the Swedish government refused to support this. After this incidence, the personal royal power lost its influence in foreign affairs. Also in the case against the governor, Karl lost against the government, and during Karl's reign, most of the power was given to the parliament. Karl's was a friend of the people. He was married to Lovisa of Netherland.
(1829-1907) King of Sweden and Norway from 1872, in Norway until 1905, son of Oscar I. Oscar was especially interested in foreign affairs, and he was oriented versus Germany. He fought the introduction of parliamentary system in Norway, and it was against his will when it was introduced in Sweden in 1905. Oscar did not support the dissolution of the union in 1905. His memoirs (released in 3 volumes) has historical value.
(1872.1957) King of Norway fro 1905, son of Frederik VIII of Denmark. His name as Danish prince, was Carl. Married to his cousin, the British princess Maud. Haakon was appointed king by the parliament after the dissolution of the Swedish-Norwegian union. With his constitutional and correct attitude, Haakon strengthened the monarchy's position in Norway. His conduct during the governmental crises in 1928 strenghtened his relationship with the laborers. Against the will of the retiring prime minister and the president of the Norwegian parliament, he encouraged the leader of the parliaments biggest party, "Arbeiderpariet" (the labors' party) to create a new government. Haakons straight attitude when the Germans occupied Norway in 1940, resulted in him being a gathering, national symbol more then ever. The 07.06.1940 he left Norway together withe the parliament, to continue the fight from Great Britain. After five years in exile, he returned to Norway the 07.09.1945. The autumn of 1955, Haakon could celebrate 50 years as monarch. Not long after this, he had an accident which resulted in a broken leg. After being sick for a long period, he died the 21.09.1957.
(02.07.1903-17.1.1991) King of Norway from 1957, son of Haakon VII. Before his father became king of Norway, his name was Alexander Edward Christian Frederik. Married with princess Märtha of Sweden. Lived at Skaugum, Asker outside Oslo, with his wife and tree children, Ragnhild (born 1930), Astrid, (born 1932) and Harald (born 1937). Olav used the same motto as his father; "Everything for Norway!" Followed his father and the cabinet to Great Britain in 1940. He was chief of defense in 1994-1995. Returned to Norway 13.05.1945. From 30.06.1955 he was crownprince-regent during his fathers sickness. Became king when his father died. Olav was a great athlete; won Olympic gold-medal in sailing in 1928, and several other top-results. He was very popular among the people, and had been called "the people's king". The summer of 1990 he got sick, and he died of a stroke in January 1991.
(21.02.1937- )King of Norway from 1991, son of Olav V and crownprincess Märtha. Educated officer, graded admiral in 1977. An Excellent sailer, participated in the Olympic Games. Got married to Sonja Haraldsen in 1968. Became crownprince-regent when his father turned sick. Children: Märtha Louise (born 20.07.1971) and Haakon Magnus (born 20.07.1973).